Psychological well-being of people infected with HIV from temporal perspective: macro- and microdynamics of changes (NSC SONATA 12 grant no. 2016/23/D/HS6/02943)
Project duration: 2017 - 2020
Thanks to advances in medicine, people with chronic diseases are living longer, although the higher life expectancy, unfortunately, does not always bring patients the feeling of happiness. There are many chronically ill patients who would make an informed choice between a shorter, more dignified and fulfilling life on the one hand, and a longer one but marked by greater suffering on the other.
The aim of our study was to describe and compare the psychological factors responsible for psychological well-being among people infected with HIV. This infection is associated with various types of life problems. It is therefore important to check which factors improve and which reduce the well-being of these people. An innovative enrichment of our research was the addition of the so-called diary studies, which capture the dynamics of daily coping with chronic stress. Combining the evaluation of long-term psychological well-beingwith insight into day-to-day behavioural changes makes it possible to describe the process of coping with the disease and adaptation that changes over time. In the light of the literature review on the subject, such studies have not yet been conducted among people infected with HIV.
To verify the research questions and hypotheses, we designed a longitudinal study (paper method) supported by the diary measurement method (electronic method, using an internet platform). As part of the longitudinal measurement, we examined approximately 200 HIV-infected people in three phases at six-month intervals. As part of the diary measurement in the recruited group of respondents, we examined a subgroup of over 100 people who, for additional five days, also in three phases at six-month intervals, completed appropriately modified questionnaires (that is our research tools) using the internet platform.
The subjects completed a set of research tools consisting of:
- survey form containing questions about demographic and clinical variables;
- WHO Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF, in Polish adaptation by Jaracz and collaborators, 2006);
- Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, adapted by Juczyński, 2001);
- PANAS-X questionnaire (adapted by Krok, 2009);
- NEO-FFI questionnaire (adapted by Zawadzki and collaborators, 1998);
- MINI-Cope questionnaire (adapted by Ogińska-Bulik, Juczyński, 2009, additionally enriched with more precise measurement in the area of coping focused on emotions);
- and Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, adapted by Łuszczyńska and collaborators, 2006).
In some of the diary measurements we use used modified and shortened versions of the questionnaires to measure:
- emotional state (positive and negative emotions);
- strategies of coping with stress (focusing on the problem, on the meaning and on emotions, the latter divided into palliative coping, that is focusing on negative emotions, and salutary coping, that is arousing positive emotions);
- and social support (support received and given, and satisfaction with support).
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